8 August 2005

Kesiapan Indonesia Menghadapi WHO FCTC

Posted under: at 18:26

Support the WHO FCTC. It saves lives!

WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) adalah konvensi Internasional yang mengatur hal-hal mengenai produksi, penjualan, distribusi, pengiklanan, pajak dan kebijaksanaan pemerintah tentang produk-produk yang mengandung tembakau seperti rokok dan cerutu.

Konvensi ini sudah berlaku mulai 27 Februari 2005 yang lalu. Indonesia sendiri sampai saat ini belum menandatanganinya.

Berikut adalah aturan-aturan praktis FCTC yang diharapkan akan diberlakukan oleh setiap negara anggota beserta kondisinya di Indonesia.

Article 6: Price and tax measures to reduce the demand for tobacco

… each Party should take account of its national health objectives concerning tobacco control and adopt or maintain, as appropriate, measures which may include:

  • implementing tax policies and, where appropriate, price policies, on tobacco products so as to contribute to the health objectives aimed at reducing tobacco consumption

Ya” produk tembakau di Indonesia dipajak. Walaupun demikian saya tidak tahu parameter apa saja yang menjadi penentu kebijaksanaan besarnya pajak.

  • prohibiting or restricting, as appropriate, sales to and/or importations by international travellers of tax- and duty-free tobacco products.

Tidak: orang asing di Indonesia dapat membeli produk tembakau dengan bebas.

Article 8: Protection from exposure to tobacco smoke

… the adoption and implementation of effective legislative, executive, administrative and/or other measures, providing for protection from exposure to tobacco smoke in indoor workplaces, public transport, indoor public places and, as appropriate, other public places.

Tidak: peraturan tentang ini untuk saat ini hanya berlaku di DKI Jakarta, dan itu pun masih belum efektif. Perokok masih terlihat bisa dengan bebas merokok di tempat kerja, sarana transportasi dan lain-lain.

Article 10: Regulation of tobacco product disclosures

Each Party shall further adopt and implement effective measures for public disclosure of information about the toxic constituents of the tobacco products and the emissions that they may produce.

Tidak: masyarakat tidak dapat dengan mudah mendapatkan informasi kandungan sebuah produk rokok.

Article 11: Packaging and labelling of tobacco products

tobacco product packaging and labelling do not promote a tobacco product by any means that are false, misleading, deceptive or likely to create an erroneous impression about its characteristics, health effects, hazards or emissions, including any term, descriptor, trademark, figurative or any other sign that directly or indirectly creates the false impression that a particular tobacco product is less harmful than other tobacco products. These may include terms such as “low tar”, “light”, “ultra-light”, or “mild”

Tidak: Sampoerna Mild? Bentoel Mild? Star Mild?

each unit packet and package of tobacco products and any outside packaging and labelling of such products also carry health warnings describing the harmful effects of tobacco use, and may include other appropriate messages. These warnings and messages:

  • shall be approved by the competent national authority,
  • shall be rotating,
  • shall be large, clear, visible and legible,
  • should be 50% or more of the principal display areas but shall be no less than 30% of the principal display areas,
  • may be in the form of or include pictures or pictograms.

Ya: setiap rokok mencantumkan label “Merokok dapat menyebabkan kanker, serangan jantung, gangguan kesehatan janin dan impotensi”. Walaupun demikian jumlah pesan cuma satu macam, tidak berotasi.

Each unit packet and package of tobacco products and any outside packaging and labelling of such products shall, in addition to the warnings specified in paragraph 1(b) of this Article, contain information on relevant constituents and emissions of tobacco products as defined by national authorities.

Tidak: rokok yang dijual tidak mencantumkan bahan yang dikandung rokok tersebut.

Each Party shall require that the warnings and other textual information specified in paragraphs 1(b) and paragraph 2 of this Article will appear on each unit packet and package of tobacco products and any outside packaging and labelling of such products in its principal language or languages.

Ya: pesan juga dapat ditemukan pada kotak besar rokok.

Article 13: Tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship

As a minimum, and in accordance with its constitution or constitutional principles, each Party shall:

  • prohibit all forms of tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship that promote a tobacco product by any means that are false, misleading or deceptive or likely to create an erroneous impression about its characteristics, health effects, hazards or emissions

Ya: saya tidak menemukan iklan rokok yang menyesatkan, terlepas dari label ‘mild’ dan sebagainya.

  • require that health or other appropriate warnings or messages accompany all tobacco advertising and, as appropriate, promotion and sponsorship

Ya

  • restrict the use of direct or indirect incentives that encourage the purchase of tobacco products by the public

Ya: setahu saya tidak ada. Apa berkenalan dengan SPG rokok itu termasuk ‘indirect incentives’? ;)

  • require, if it does not have a comprehensive ban, the disclosure to relevant governmental authorities of expenditures by the tobacco industry on advertising promotion and sponsorship not yet prohibited. Those authorities may decide to make those figures available, subject to national law, to the public and to the Conference of the Parties, pursuant to Article 21

Tidak: tidak ada pemberitahuan resmi dari pemerintah tentang pendanaan iklan oleh industri tembakau.

  • undertake a comprehensive ban or, in the case of a Party that is not in a position to undertake a comprehensive ban due to its constitution or constitutional principles, restrict tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship on radio, television, print media and, as appropriate, other media, such as the internet, within a period of five years

Tidak: tidak dalam lima tahun :).

  • prohibit, or in the case of a Party that is not in a position to prohibit due to its constitution or constitutional principles restrict, tobacco sponsorship of international events, activities and/or participants therein

Tidak: iklan rokok masih ditemukan pada event-event internasional di Indonesia.

Article 14: Demand reduction measures concerning tobacco dependence and cessation

Towards this end, each Party shall endeavour to:

  • design and implement effective programmes aimed at promoting the cessation of tobacco use, in such locations as educational institutions, health care facilities, workplaces and sporting environments

Tidak: perokok masih dapat merokok di dalam institusi pendidikan, tempat kerja dan bahkan rumah sakit.

Article 15: Illicit trade in tobacco products

… require that unit packets and packages of tobacco products for retail and wholesale use that are sold on its domestic market carry the statement: “Sales only allowed in (insert name of the country, subnational, regional or federal unit)” or carry any other effective marking indicating the final destination or which would assist authorities in determining whether the product is legally for sale on the domestic market

Ya/Tidak: setahu saya ada label “Hanya untuk dijual di Indonesia”, tapi tidak ada label misalnya “Hanya untuk dijual di Jakarta”.

Article 16: Sales to and by minors

  • requiring that all sellers of tobacco products place a clear and prominent indicator inside their point of sale about the prohibition of tobacco sales to minors and, in case of doubt, request that each tobacco purchaser provide appropriate evidence of having reached full legal age

Ya/Tidak: pesan ini ada di mini market, mall dan sebagainya, tetapi tidak ditemukan di kios atau penjaja eceran.

  • banning the sale of tobacco products in any manner by which they are directly accessible, such as store shelves

Ya: pada mall-mall, rokok dijual pada counter khusus dan tidak diambil secara swalayan oleh pembeli.

  • prohibiting the manufacture and sale of sweets, snacks, toys or any other objects in the form of tobacco products which appeal to minors

Ya: saya tidak dapat menemukan hal-hal tersebut.

  • ensuring that tobacco vending machines under its jurisdiction are not accessible to minors and do not promote the sale of tobacco products to minors

Ya: saya belum pernah menemukan vending machine rokok

Each Party shall prohibit or promote the prohibition of the distribution of free tobacco products to the public and especially minors

Tidak: produk rokok gratis seringkali ditawarkan pada masa promosi

Each Party shall endeavour to prohibit the sale of cigarettes individually or in small packets which increase the affordability of such products to minors

Tidak: rokok masih dapat dibeli per batang

Article 17: Provision of support for economically viable alternative activities

Parties shall, in cooperation with each other and with competent international and regional intergovernmental organizations, promote, as appropriate, economically viable alternatives for tobacco workers, growers and, as the case may be, individual sellers.

Ya/Tidak: saya belum melihat adanya usaha untuk mentransisikan petani tembakau ke bidang usaha lain, tetapi saya tidak sepenuhnya yakin.

Saat ini, WHO FCTC ditandatangani oleh 168 negara. Indonesia adalah negara dengan penduduk terbanyak dari sedikit negara yang tersisa yang belum menandatangani FCTC. Tak heran kalau Phillip-Morris begitu bernafsu untuk mengakuisisi 100% saham Sampoerna pada awal tahun ini.

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